从这场大流行中吸取的教训对未来终身学习体系的启示

来自:UIL的终身学习博客

Katja Römer于2022年5月2日发布

经合组织技能中心(OECD Centre for Skills)的弗朗西丝卡·博戈诺维(Francesca Borgonovi)写道,投资于终身学习并加强其抵御未来冲击,对于让人们和社会适应不断变化的工作世界至关重要

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The lifelong learning blog from UIL

Lessons from the pandemic for the future of lifelong learning systems

Posted on May 2, 2022 by Katja Römer

Investing in lifelong learning and strengthening it against future shocks is essential to enabling people and societies to adapt to the changing world of work, writes Francesca Borgonovi of the OECD Centre for Skills

冠状病毒疾病大流行是一个世纪以来最严重的健康危机。它给世界各地的经济和社会造成了深刻的冲击和创伤。这场疫情继续给世界各地的企业和个人带来重大困难,在能源价格上涨之际对贸易和劳动力短缺造成干扰。与此同时,许多国家为弥合疫情创伤而制定的复苏计划现在可能受到俄乌冲突、相关地缘政治不稳定及其对全球经济后果的威胁。

The COVID-19 pandemic is the worst health crisis in a century. It has caused deep shocks and scars in economies and societies throughout the world. The pandemic continues to cause major difficulties for businesses and to challenge individuals around the world, creating disruptions to trade and labour shortages at a time of increased energy prices. At the same time, the recovery plans that many countries put in place to heal the scars of the pandemic could now be threatened by the war in Ukraine, the associated geopolitical instability and its consequences for the global economy.

现在,比以往任何时候更重要的是投资于终身学习,以确保个人和社会能够驾驭并融入一个快速变化的工作世界。从过去两年中学习对于增强终身学习系统对未来和持续冲击的适应能力至关重要。

Now, more than ever, it is important to invest in lifelong learning to ensure that individuals and societies will be able to navigate and integrate into a rapidly changing world of work. Learning from the past two years is critical to strengthening the resilience of lifelong learning systems to future and ongoing shocks.

这场流行病清楚地表明,确保终身学习成为所有人的现实取决于确保个人建立坚实的基础技能。没有这些,获得终身学习机会即使有可能,也是很困难的。在疫情期间,缺乏基本数字化技能的个人发现很难操作数字设备和学会新技术,因为学习活动必须通过远程进行。未来,技术将越来越多地用于提供培训,对数字设备的不熟悉将阻碍个人技能的发展。利用技术的力量扩大终身学习机会将是关键,但重要的是监测和减少技术可能造成的不平等。

The pandemic made clear that ensuring that lifelong learning becomes a reality for all depends on making sure that individuals build solid foundation skills. Without these, access to lifelong learning opportunities is difficult, if not impossible. During the pandemic, individuals who did not have basic digital skills found it hard to operate and develop new skills because learning opportunities had to take place remotely. In the future, technology will increasingly be used to deliver training and a lack of familiarity with digital devices will hamper individuals’ skills development. Harnessing the power of technology to expand access to lifelong learning opportunities will be key but it will be important to monitor and reduce the inequalities technology can create.

总体而言,来自经合组织《2021年技能展望:终身学习》和欧盟劳动力调查(EU-LFS)的数据表明,受疫情影响,参与教育和培训的人数减少。例如,2020年,欧盟27国9.5%的就业成年人在前四周参加了教育和培训,而2019年的平均比例为11.4%。据估计,在经合组织国家实行全面封锁期间,工人在非正规学习上的所花的时间可能减少了25%,在非正式学习上的时间可能减少了18%。

Overall, data from the OECD’s Skills Outlook 2021: Learning for Life and from the EU Labour Force Survey (EU-LFS) suggest that participation in education and training decreased because of the pandemic. For example, in 2020, 9.5 per cent of employed adults in the EU-27 had taken part in education and training in the previous four weeks, down from an average of 11.4 per cent in 2019. Estimates suggest that, during generalized lock downs in OECD countries, the number of hours workers spent in informal learning may have decreased by as much as 25 per cent and the number of hours workers spent in non-formal learning may have shrunk by as much as 18 per cent.

在疫情期间,世界各地的企业找到组织员工学习机会的创新方法,帮助他们培养在封锁期间维持生产和服务提供所需的新技能,同时遵守卫生法规。许多人也在努力培养自己的技能。在加拿大、法国、意大利、英国和美国,随着严格的封锁规则在大多数经合组织国家生效,从2020年3月底到4月初,“在线学习”、“电子学习”和“慕课”(或“MOOC”)等术语的搜索量增加了四倍。与此同时,偏远的工作条件和企业倒闭意味着许多工人无法从非正规和非正式的学习机会中受益,因为没有找到面对面授课的有效替代方案。由于缺乏培训,刚进入劳动力市场的年轻人在技能发展方面受到的惩罚尤其严重。

During the pandemic, businesses from around the world found innovative ways to organize learning opportunities for their workers, helping them build the new skills needed to maintain production and service delivery during lock downs while complying with health regulations. Many individuals also put great effort into building their skills. In Canada, France, Italy, the United Kingdom and the United States, searches for terms such as ‘online learning’, ‘e-learning’ and ‘massive open online courses’ (or ‘MOOCs’) increased up to fourfold between late March and early April 2020, as strict lockdown rules came into force in most OECD countries. At the same time, remote working conditions and business closures meant that many workers were unable to benefit from informal and non-formal learning opportunities because no effective alternative to face-to-face delivery was identified. Young people who had just entered the labour market were especially penalized in their skills development efforts because of a lack of training delivery.

这场疫情给培训方面带来了巨大的创新,未来也应该加以推广。然而,重要的是要确定成功的方案,开发有助于监测不同行动有效性的信息系统,并促进通过持续监测扩大成功倡议规模的战略。此外,关键是要确定能够惠及那些因缺乏技能而在劳动力市场表现不佳风险最高的人的计划,并考虑到其他正在出现的趋势。

The pandemic led to great innovation in training provision, which should be promoted also in the future. However, it is important to identify successful programmes, develop information systems that help monitor the effectiveness of different initiatives, and promote strategies to bring successful initiatives to scale through continuous monitoring. Moreover, it is key to identify programmes that reach those at the highest risk of faring poorly in the labour market because of a lack of skills and take into account the emergence of other ongoing trends.

最后,这场疫情的一个关键经验是伙伴的力量。在疫情暴发期间,扩大学习机会的成功举措依赖于不同利益攸关方之间的强大伙伴关系,包括学校、高等教育部门、职业教育和培训机构、雇主、协会和民间社会组织。这场疫情告诉我们,我们在一起就会更加强大,社区的福祉取决于我们所有人是否愿意参与并尽自己的一份力量。在一个快速变化和不确定的世界中创造一种能够实现终身学习的环境,首先需要在所有相关行为者之间建立强有力的伙伴关系,调动相关利益相关者的技能和意愿,最大限度地为所有人提供学习机会。

Finally, a key lesson from the pandemic is the power of partnerships. During the pandemic outbreak, successful initiatives to expand access to learning opportunities relied on strong partnerships between different stakeholders, including schools, the higher education sector, vocational education and training institutions, employers, associations and civil society organizations. The pandemic has taught us that we are stronger together and that the well-being of communities depends on the willingness of us all to chip in and do our part. Creating a climate that enables lifelong learning in a rapidly changing and uncertain world requires, first and foremost, the creation of strong partnerships across all relevant actors, mobilizing the skills and will of relevant stakeholders to maximise learning opportunities for all.

Francesca Borgonovi是经济合作与发展组织(OECD)技能中心技能分析团队的负责人

Francesca Borgonovi is Head of the Skills Analysis Team at the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Centre for Skills

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